Though it’s hardly realistic to keep people from moving north, there’s evidence to suggest that those living in northern latitudes may need to be a bit more careful about their gut health than the rest of us. A study in the journal Biology Letters found that living in northern latitudes encourages the growth of Firmicutes microbes, which have been linked to weight gain while decreasing the number of microbes linked with slim body types called Bacteroidetes. Generally speaking, the research showed that the number of Firmicutes increases with latitude and the number of Bacteroidetes decreases with latitude. To help ensure a healthy gut no matter where you reside, make sure your diet includes fermented and probiotic-rich foods, both of which encourage the growth of healthy gut bacteria.

Limited to just 15 people each week, the Sunday to Saturday stay at the Ranch at Live Oak Malibu is designed to deliver sustainable results through a strict, “no-options” philosophy.   Tough workouts, physical endurance, yoga, and hiking are key elements of the program as well as the vegetarian cuisine sourced on the property. No cell phones are permitted and while accommodations are beautifully appointed, you won’t find televisions to distract you from activity.
This was such an interesting article especially to note the strength levels not lost during this process. Do you have a similar article with respect to bodybuilding as I did read that the process is similar but with important differences so as to not have water sit under skin but be ushered into the muscle bellies. Thank you so much for all of your responses.

weight loss after kids


As part of an eight-year study that included nearly 50,000 women, Harvard researchers tracked what happened when people either slashed their intake of sweetened drinks or started consuming more of them. Not surprisingly, the participants who raised their sugary-drink intake gained weight and increased their risk of developing Type 2 diabetes. In fact, the more people's sweet-drink intake increased, the more weight they gained and the more their disease risk went up.
Few things are more discouraging to someone on a weight-loss plan than the oft-cited statistic that 95% of people who lose weight will regain it within a few years. The difficulty in sticking with a long-term weight-maintenance plan is one of the main reasons that weight-loss programs fail. To uncover clues to successful weight loss, researchers have been collecting information on people who have lost weight and successfully kept it off for many years. This project, known as the National Weight Control Registry (NWCR), records what these people did to achieve their goals.
In her book The Naughty Diet, author Melissa Milne—whose own essay, “I Eat Slim-Shamers for Breakfast” also went viral—interviewed thousands of women about the body shaming and they all said the same thing: “They were sick and tired of feeling bad while trying to be good,” she writes in The Naughty Diet. “And here’s the secret of all secrets: You don’t feel bad about yourself when you get fat. You get fat when you feel bad about yourself.” This could be because chronic stress raises levels of the stress hormone cortisol in the body, which can trigger belly fat storage. Try being kinder to yourself, which will reduce stress and help melt the pounds away effortlessly.
Fit Body Weight Loss is an all-natural, holistic weight loss clinic based in Gilbert, Arizona. We work with clients from all over America. We offer a therapeutic nutrition program that combines REAL, nutrient dense foods, supplementation, coaching, education and individualized support to safely and reliably achieve healthy, RAPID results. Place your order online and it will be conveniently delivered to your home or office within days.
When you place heaping bowls of food on the table, over-eating is inevitable. In fact, a study in the journal Obesity found that when food is served family-style, people consume 35 percent more over the course of their meal. To avoid scarfing down extra bites, keep food on the stove or counter and spoon it out onto plates from there. When going back for seconds requires leaving the table, people tend to consider their hunger levels more carefully. And serving healthier dishes can, of course, help too. These 20 Best-Ever Recipes for Zero Belly are all weight loss-friendly options we love.
We’ve already discussed how the color red may act as an appetite suppressant (hence the need for red dishes) but apparently that’s not the only color you should be taking note of as you prepare to eat. Per a recent study from Cornell University, diners actually serve themselves more food if the color of their food matches the color of their plate. In other words, if you’re eating from a white plate, you’re more likely to help yourself to more rice or pasta. Conversely, if your goal is to eat less, select plates that have high contrast with what you plan to serve for dinner.
If you're a European or English yogi, then you can easily stay close to home for your get-into-shape holiday. This makes it much easier to incorporate everything you learn into your new, healthy life. Plus, you are close enough to the retreat that you might meet a few friendly neighbors. And isn't that so cool that you can build a health-focused community so easily?

Intentional weight loss is the loss of total body mass as a result of efforts to improve fitness and health, or to change appearance through slimming. Weight loss in individuals who are overweight or obese can reduce health risks,[1] increase fitness,[2] and may delay the onset of diabetes.[1] It could reduce pain and increase movement in people with osteoarthritis of the knee.[2] Weight loss can lead to a reduction in hypertension (high blood pressure), however whether this reduces hypertension-related harm is unclear.[1][not in citation given]
Considering that only 1 in 10 Americans meet their produce requirements, it’s pretty safe to say you need to eat more veggies. And no matter what food philosophy you subscribe to, veggies are a big part of the program. Vegetables have a lot going for them: They fill you up for very few calories, and they flood your body with the nutrients it needs to fight diseases, like heart disease, type 2 diabetes, and some cancers.
The answer for me is simple, “Do the right thing despite any issues and stresses.” Despite anything negative in society and despite any direct impact on any person, one can do one’s best to simply choose to do the right thing. It’s not easy; it’s a bear at first. But wellness practices beget wellness. Most of us are victims of something, including our own brains, personalities, and proclivities. We have to work on awareness every day and do the right thing.

You'll learn and experience Mindful Eating, a practice that helps you better understand why you choose to eat along with guided training and nutritional support. We have included acupuncture and spa therapies to promote your bodies natural ability to detoxify. When compared to other resorts, our Utah weight loss retreats include more individual testing and personalized attention – plus our special ingredient: adventure.
Considering that only 1 in 10 Americans meet their produce requirements, it’s pretty safe to say you need to eat more veggies. And no matter what food philosophy you subscribe to, veggies are a big part of the program. Vegetables have a lot going for them: They fill you up for very few calories, and they flood your body with the nutrients it needs to fight diseases, like heart disease, type 2 diabetes, and some cancers.
Low-calorie diets are also referred to as balanced percentage diets. Due to their minimal detrimental effects, these types of diets are most commonly recommended by nutritionists. In addition to restricting calorie intake, a balanced diet also regulates macronutrient consumption. From the total number of allotted daily calories, it is recommended that 55% should come from carbohydrates, 15% from protein, and 30% from fats with no more than 10% of total fat coming from saturated forms.[citation needed] For instance, a recommended 1,200 calorie diet would supply about 660 calories from carbohydrates, 180 from protein, and 360 from fat. Some studies suggest that increased consumption of protein can help ease hunger pangs associated with reduced caloric intake by increasing the feeling of satiety.[4] Calorie restriction in this way has many long-term benefits. After reaching the desired body weight, the calories consumed per day may be increased gradually, without exceeding 2,000 net (i.e. derived by subtracting calories burned by physical activity from calories consumed). Combined with increased physical activity, low-calorie diets are thought to be most effective long-term, unlike crash diets, which can achieve short-term results, at best. Physical activity could greatly enhance the efficiency of a diet. The healthiest weight loss regimen, therefore, is one that consists of a balanced diet and moderate physical activity.[citation needed]
Face it, if you want to lose weight over the long haul, your best bet is to make sustainable, long-term lifestyle changes like the nine simple ones this woman made to shed 45 pounds and keep them off. But sometimes life comes at you fast and you need a fast solution. One smart lifestyle change is to eat plenty of veggies—especially for someone looking to lose weight. Vegetables are nutrient-packed and provide plenty of filling fiber with hardly any calories. Plus, non-starchy veggies have a high water content, so they hydrate you while filling you up—the perfect combination for weight loss.
Leaving the comforts of your gym can be difficult, but outdoor workouts have their own unique set of benefits. Research has shown that breaking a sweat outdoors may be more beneficial than burning calories inside. According to a study published in Environmental Science and Technology, exercising in a natural environment outdoors may improve energy levels and decrease stress more than working out indoors can.

Trans fats, which are typically found in processed foods with partially hydrogenated oils, should be avoided when buying, cooking, or ordering food because of the role they play in weight gain. As noted in the journal Obesity, these unhealthy substances have been found to pack on the belly fat in monkeys. As it turns out, they’re not great for humans either. “Trans fats cause inflammation in the body leading to insulin resistance and impairing the body’s ability to use glucose properly, resulting in excess fat storage around the belly,” says Tina Marinaccio, MS RD CPT in 50 Ways to Shrink Your Belly. Trans fats, which are created by partially hydrogenating vegetable oils, are beloved by manufacturers because they increase the shelf life of processed foods, but they are no friend to your waistline. “Trans fats may be lurking in any processed or fried food such as chips, baked goods, and even butter spreads,”Marinaccio warns.”To avoid them, check the ingredients for hydrogenated or partially hydrogenated oils.”
The potential endocrine-disrupting effects of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have been demonstrated in animal studies, but whether PFASs may interfere with body weight regulation in humans is largely unknown. This study aimed to examine the associations of PFAS exposure with changes in body weight and resting metabolic rate (RMR) in a diet-induced weight-loss setting.

How many times have you looked in the mirror and thought you’d be happier with what you saw if you were a little trimmer? Although body positivity is important no matter what your weight, achieving a health goal can up your confidence. “A better mood [that comes with weight loss] often leads to a boost in self-esteem and feelings of empowerment,” Sass says. “Positivity breeds positivity.” Mayo Clinic suggests setting weight-loss goals that are achievable—such as dropping 5 percent of your current weight—to set yourself up for success. Learn more surprising ways weight loss changes your personality.
A paper-thin wrap may seem like a healthier, lower carb alternative to a sandwich, but don’t be fooled by appearances. Wraps are almost always loaded with calories, thanks to the fat that’s needed to make them pliable—and a large wrap can be the carb and calorie equivalent of four or five slices of bread. In other words, forget the wrap and go for a cold, open-faced sandwich instead. Your waistline will thank you.
Inspired by the Hanging Gardens of Babylon and built in the style of a relaxed Mediterranean seaside village, Sianji Wellbeing Resort is the perfect setting to embrace a new and healthy lifestyle.  The programs focus on a total wellness experience, combining physical, spiritual and mental aspects, including nutrition, medical exams, fitness and sports activities, soothing spa treatments, and lifestyle seminars and classes.

Leaving the comforts of your gym can be difficult, but outdoor workouts have their own unique set of benefits. Research has shown that breaking a sweat outdoors may be more beneficial than burning calories inside. According to a study published in Environmental Science and Technology, exercising in a natural environment outdoors may improve energy levels and decrease stress more than working out indoors can.

Not much of a coffee drinker? Tea is also a natural diuretic, and types of herbal tea such as dandelion or fennel root can also lend a hand. In fact: When a recent study compared the metabolic effect of green tea (in extract) with that of a placebo, researchers found that the green-tea drinkers burned about 70 additional calories in a 24-hour period.

But most important, stress-wise, is the immersion in nature. This corner of the Canadian Rockies is one of the most strikingly beautiful places anywhere: crystalline mountain lakes, endless blue skies, fields festooned with wildflowers. Many guests come to Mountain Trek for the fantastic hiking alone—quite a few during my recent visit were here after searching online for luxury hiking trips. But even if they didn’t know what they were signing up for with the more rigorous elements of the program (forgoing caffeine, sugar and alcohol; putting in long hours of exertion), they quickly became converts.
Featured on the NBC hit reality TV show, “The Biggest Loser,” this resort’s reputation certainly precedes itself. The resort has locations in Malibu, Calif.; Niagara, N.Y. and just recently Chicago, but the original Ivins, Utah location beat out the others (and took first place) in SpaFinder’s readers’ choice top 100 spas in 2012. The resort’s program is similar to what viewers see on TV: intense and group-oriented. During the seven-day program (from $2,695 for a private room), guests start off each day with a scenic guided hike. From there, participants partake in core strength training, cardio, water aerobics, cooking demonstrations and more. After the day is done, guests have the opportunity to relax in the heated swimming pool or at the full-service spa.
More than half of the attendees at In:spa are repeat visitors thanks to a realistic, holistic approach to wellness. Cal Reiet, a fantastically smart 15-bedroom manor house, provides the perfect base. Programmes are a mix of combined activities (HIIT workouts, a 10km coastal hike, yoga) and more tailored, emotionally nourishing sessions (nutrition advice and massages). It's not particularly flexible, but relinquishing decision-making for a week is hugely relaxing, as is exercising in such lovely surroundings. At the heart of the experience is the food, a menu of mainly vegetarian dishes such as seed bread slathered in almond butter and avocado, turmeric and pea salad. It's a programme that will keep making you feel better, even long after you have left.

diet for 42 year old woman


Despite the common perception that you need to drop pounds slowly in order to maintain your weight loss, the exact opposite is true. In fact, you’re more than five times as likely to succeed in your long-term weight-loss goals if you start out of the gate by dropping pounds rapidly, according to a 2010 study in the International Journal of Behavioral Medicine. To set yourself up for weight loss success, make sure you focus on diet and exercise.
This was such an interesting article especially to note the strength levels not lost during this process. Do you have a similar article with respect to bodybuilding as I did read that the process is similar but with important differences so as to not have water sit under skin but be ushered into the muscle bellies. Thank you so much for all of your responses.

In a new study, Stanford University researchers put more than 600 overweight adults on either a healthy low-fat or low-carb diet. It turns out, participants had similar levels of weight loss success on each plan. Researchers looked for clues (such as insulin levels and gene patterns) to see if there are any factors that might make someone more successful on either diet, but after combing through the data, they were not able to make any connections. Since it may take years before scientists discover individual traits that could lead to more success on one plan compared to another, for now, we can learn a lot — and lose a lot! — by recognizing the dieting advice that all experts agree on. 

To maximize weight loss, guests will eat a high-protein/low-carb Paleolithic-inspired diet, starting the day with a fresh juice and continuing with alkalizing raw fruit and vegetables and fresh seafood. The trip fee includes an in-depth personal training course in the guest's home country, three weeks in advance in order to prepare for the trip, and one week on return.
Your basal metabolic rate (BMR) is how many calories you'd need to maintain your weight if you did nothing all day. Your BMR can be altered by your lifestyle. This handy total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) calculator, which is based on the Mifflin-St. Jeor equation, will take your BMR and factor in additional calories based on your activity level, age, and sex.
Fuel your body with wholesome, nutritious foods, and limit your intake of refined carbs (anything sugary or white-flour based). To maximize the calories burned through digestion and stave off hunger, get plenty of complex carbs (fruits, vegetables and beans) and eat a little protein with every meal. It doesn't need to be meat; nuts, lowfat dairy, tofu, and beans are all good vegetarian protein sources. 
In our pilot study evaluating the within-person stability of PFAS concentrations, intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) between concentrations in 2 blood samples collected 1–2 years apart from 58 participants in the Nurses’ Health Study II demonstrated excellent reproducibility of PFAS concentrations in blood: the ICCs were 0.91 for PFOS, 0.90 for PFOA, 0.94 for PFHxS, 0.87 for PFNA, and 0.82 for PFDA (all P < 0.001).
Are you considering a visit to a weight loss resort? Many smart dieters begin their journey away from home to get a clean break from the habits and lifestyle practices that led to weight gain in the first place. It's a smart approach if you can afford the luxury, but a visit to a health spa is not cheap, so it's smart to do your homework before you decide where to go.
I am having reconstructive surgery on my ankle in two days (5/16/13) and since I will be on my posterior for the few weeks after – at least no exercising – I’m looking for advise on dropping 20-30 lbs over the never 40 days so rehab will go better…stats – 5’9 204 – formerly athletic build now couch build – 47 yrs old – I have been a “Ferrisee” (better than Ferrasite) since listening to 4HWW and then 4HB – but need refocused guidance – from one and all – If this is the wrong string please let me know that as well.
The mean (SD) age of the 621 participants was 51.4 (9.1) years, with a mean (SD) baseline BMI of 32.6 (3.8) kg/m2. Participants lost an average of 6.4 kg of body weight during the first 6 months and subsequently regained an average of 2.7 kg during the remaining study period. In comparison with the POUNDS Lost participants not included in the current study due to the lack of plasma samples at baseline, the participants included were slightly older (51.4 versus 49.1 years, P = 0.01), but there were no significant differences in other characteristics, including body weight and RMR (S1 Table).
“The weight starting coming off,” she says. “I remember I lost 9 lbs. my first week. After I had lost 100 lbs., I started trying more adventurous exercise. I became fascinated by fitness and seeing what new things I could accomplish with my body. I do things that I never dreamed were possible like running races, lifting heavy weights, and completing a sprint triathlon.”
Garlic may leave your breath smelling funky, but don’t let that stop you from incorporating it into your diet, especially since it can help you lose weight and keep you healthy. A 2016 study found that garlic powder reduces body weight and fat mass among people with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Recent studies have also shown that garlic supports blood-sugar metabolism and helps control lipid levels in the blood. What’s more? Eating garlic can help boost your immune system, help ward off heart disease, fight inflammation, increase memory retention, and lower blood pressure.
Getting clear about why you want to lose weight will provide you with the fuel to keep going when your resolve starts to weaken (as—let’s be honest—it inevitably will). “I’d encourage those who are thinking of getting healthier to take some time to reflect and journal about what matters most,” Shirley Mast, R.N., B.S.N., and Take Shape For Life Health Coach, tells SELF.
When it’s doing its job properly, inflammation in the body helps fight off infection. But in people who are overweight or obese, inflammation can get out of control, which increases insulin resistance as well as your risk for heart disease, cancer, arthritis, and even Alzheimer’s disease. “Excess body fat, especially when it’s located around the abdomen, is strongly linked to inflammation,” Dr. Webster says. Adipose fat tissue releases inflammation-causing molecules, but the markers of inflammation go down with even a 5 or 10 percent reduction in body weight, she says. Eat more of these 15 superfoods that can help you lose weight.
In the UK, up to 5% of the general population is underweight, but more than 10% of those with lung or gastrointestinal diseases and who have recently had surgery.[29] According to data in the UK using the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool ('MUST'), which incorporates unintentional weight loss, more than 10% of the population over the age of 65 is at risk of malnutrition.[29] A high proportion (10-60%) of hospital patients are also at risk, along with a similar proportion in care homes.[29]
I see so many people posting photos of awful boring meals.. Eating dry chicken and dry potatoes every night is soon going to get boring.. and let’s face it! That is when we end up going off of plan and giving up.. boring diets=failure. I save all of my Slimming World magazines and I follow loads of blogs. So each week I look for new recipe ideas. I actually quite enjoy suggesting things to my husband and him kind of screwing his nose up at it.. but when it is served up to him he loves it (usually).
In one four-week Spanish study, researchers found that eating a calorie-restricted diet that also included four weekly servings of legumes aided weight loss more effectively than an equivalent diet sans the pulses. Those who consumed the legume-rich diet also saw improvements in their bad LDL cholesterol levels and systolic blood pressure. Next time you’re cooking something starchy for dinner, consider eating fiber and protein-packed lentils instead.
Yes, freedom! Freedom from the routine you have back home and freedom from the judgemental glances you may receive from your colleagues. You are free to be who you are and how you are. You are free to be curious and even obsessed. You are free to be nervous and even scared. You are free to experience your weight loss journey in a totally raw and authentic way. Because you know why? That’s exactly what the retreat is for!

Even if you start slow, each bit of weight you lose will give you more energy to keep going. “Just a 5 percent drop in weight can help lower blood sugar levels and blood pressure and improve sleep quality, all of which increase energy,” Sass says. Because your body isn’t working as hard, you’ll have more resources to perform more healthy activities. And in a positive cycle, that first bit of extra energy will make changes you’re making stop seeming like such a chore. “When you have more energy, you’re more likely to feel motivated to be active and make healthier choices,” Sass says. Exercise itself has also been shown to boost energy levels. Check out these other incredible ways your body changes after just one workout.

“Repetition builds rhythm. Be boring. Most successful losers have just a couple of go-to breakfasts or snacks,” says registered dietitian Lauren Slayton. “Make an effort to pinpoint these for yourself. ‘Hmm, I’m starving what should I have?’ doesn’t often end well. You can change the rotation every few weeks, but pre-set meals or workouts on certain days will help tremendously.”
The mean (SD) age of the 621 participants was 51.4 (9.1) years, with a mean (SD) baseline BMI of 32.6 (3.8) kg/m2. Participants lost an average of 6.4 kg of body weight during the first 6 months and subsequently regained an average of 2.7 kg during the remaining study period. In comparison with the POUNDS Lost participants not included in the current study due to the lack of plasma samples at baseline, the participants included were slightly older (51.4 versus 49.1 years, P = 0.01), but there were no significant differences in other characteristics, including body weight and RMR (S1 Table).
Using a layered approach is another great way to build a good veggie habit. For example, start with a food you already enjoy — say, pasta — and layer some veggies into your bowl. This can help you explore a new food with one you already love eating, and from there, you can try new ways to savor it. Take spinach, for instance. After trying it with pasta, you may want fold it into an omelet or another favorite food, or explore it on its own with different cooking techniques (sautéed or steamed) or different flavor additions (garlic or golden raisins). The possibilities are limitless!
Eliminate sodium in diet tips # 2: Choose fresh, natural foods over fast, commercial or packaged foods. Instead of ordering french fries (265 milligrams of sodium), have a baked potato (8 milligrams). Instead of a pickle (1,730 milligrams!), enjoy a fresh cucumber (6 milligrams). And beware of cured meats: Three ounces of ham packs in 1,009 milligrams of sodium, compared to just 48 milligrams for the same amount of roast pork. Soups are also notoriously high in sodium; some canned varieties contain more than 1,100 milligrams per cup. Read labels carefully and stick with low-sodium brands like Healthy Choice. 

Another healthy change that will help you look better is to cut back on salt. Sodium causes your body to hold onto excess water, so eating a high-salt diet means you’re likely storing more water weight than necessary. Check to see if you have any of the seven clear signs you’re eating too much salt. If you’re in a rush to lose weight fast, cut out added salt as much as possible. That means keep ditching the salt shaker and avoiding processed and packaged foods, where added salt is pretty much inevitable.
The K-E diet stands for Ketogenic Enteral Nutrition diet and is the work of Dr. Oliver di Pietro, from Florida. He promises to help anyone shed 20 lbs. in as little as 10 days. As part of the diet, dieters have to get a small nasogastric tube inserted into their nose going all the way to the stomach, through which a liquid solution drips constantly. The solution supposedly contains a mix of protein, fat and water and makes up 800 calories. A few hours of this and a process called ketosis is said to be triggered, which burns body fat due to the lack of carbohydrates. The fat is burned but the muscle and water in the body remain untouched. Dieters who want to achieve the best results aren't supposed to eat anything for a period of 10 days and also have to carry around the bag of nutritious fluid everywhere they go.

Experts agree that being overweight or obese increases your risk for osteoarthritis, or wear and tear on your joints. “The more weight that’s on a joint, the more likely it is to wear down and be damaged,” Dr. Webster says. “For example, for every pound of excess weight, four additional pounds of pressure is exerted on our knees—so if someone is carrying around 20 pounds of excess weight, that’s an additional 80 pounds of stress on the knees.” Losing extra weight reduces the amount of pressure on your joints and lowers the risk of arthritis development. You can do it—check out the most inspirational weight-loss transformations of last year.
Plasma concentrations of PFOS, PFOA, perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorohexanesulfonic acid (PFHxS), and perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) were measured at baseline only, using a sensitive and reliable method based on online solid phase extraction and liquid chromatography coupled to a triple quadropole mass spectrometer [41], with minor modifications. Due to the long elimination half-lives of the PFASs and incomplete samplings, we did not measure plasma PFAS levels during the trial. For all major PFASs, the concentrations were above the limit of detection (0.05 ng/ml), and the inter- and intra-assay coefficients of variation were <6.3% and <6.1%, respectively.
Is your obsession with Reese’s and Pringles derailing your weight loss efforts? It might be if you’re not using the self-checkout kiosks at the grocery store. Let us explain: According to a study by IHL Consulting Group, impulse purchases dipped 32.1 percent for women and 16.7 percent for men when they scanned their items and swiped their credit card on their own. Although not all impulse buys are bad for your belly, a whopping 80 percent of candy and 61 percent of salty-snack purchases are unplanned.
While a few programs still offer this model, it is truly not advisable. The emphasis now for short-term stays at destination spas like Canyon Ranch Lenox and  Rancho La Puerta is not so much on losing pounds, but on eating delicious, healthy food, getting plenty of exercise, and attending lectures and classes on healthy living and personal expression. 
Low body weight and rapid unintentional weight loss are highly predictive of mortality and morbidity in the elderly population. Weight loss is frequently reported in elderly patients. Acute and chronic diseases are leading causes of involuntary weight loss. Whereas physical disease probably accounts for a majority of cases of involuntary weight loss, psychiatric disorders such as dementia and depression also may result in severe nutritional deficiencies. Additional physiological, psychological, and social factors may affect food intake and body weight. Changes in body composition include loss of height and lean body mass and lower basal metabolic rate. Energy requirements decrease because of the lower basal metabolic rate and reduced physical activity. These low energy requirements make it more difficult for the elderly to obtain adequate amounts of required nutrients. Food intake regulation, taste, and olfactory sensitivity may be altered. As 50% of Americans have lost all of their teeth by age 65, chewing problems are often present. Other factors that contribute to poor nutritional status include alterations in the gastrointestinal tract, functional disabilities, lowered socioeconomic status, and social isolation. Finally, because of the increase in both physical and psychiatric disease, the elderly are major users of prescription drugs. Drug/nutrient interactions can result in anorexia and weight loss. The findings indicate that factors causing unintentional weight loss are highly interrelated and difficult to separate. Health care professionals must monitor body weight in elderly persons and carefully evaluate any cases of rapid, unintentional weight loss to prevent further deterioration of health status.

before and after weight loss women over 40

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