Still, some people might benefit from more structure when it comes to meal planning. “Sometimes a structured diet is easier for people to manage in their busy lives, because they don’t have to think about what foods they should eat,” says Tamara Melton, M.S., R.D.N., L.D., nutrition communications and wellness consultant, and Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Spokesperson. “They can also help to get someone used to a proper portion size of meals.” So newbies to healthy eating might consider starting on a structured weight-loss meal plan and then adapting it as they get more comfortable with new eating habits. But again, if you have or are in recovery from an eating disorder, this might not be the best choice for you—focusing so much on numbers can take a lot of people to a dark place that is definitely not healthy.
The comparisons between participants included in the current analysis and those excluded were evaluated by the Student’s t test for normally distributed variables, the Wilcoxon rank-sum test for skewed variables, and the chi-squared test for categorical variables. The associations between baseline PFASs and changes in body weight and RMR during the period of weight loss (first 6 months) or weight regain (6–24 months) were examined using linear regression. The least-square means of changes in body weight (at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months) and RMR (at 6 and 24 months) according to tertiles of baseline PFAS concentrations were calculated. In addition, the relationship between PFASs and other potential mediators including thyroid hormones and leptin were further evaluated using linear regression. Covariates considered in multivariate adjustments included baseline age (continuous), sex, race, educational attainment (high school or less, some college, or college graduate or beyond), smoking status (never, former, or current smoker), alcohol consumption (continuous), physical activity (continuous), the 4 diet groups, and baseline BMI (or baseline RMR for the analysis of RMR change). Moreover, menopausal status and hormone replacement therapy (women only) were also entered into the model in a sensitivity analysis. To test the linear trend of the associations of baseline PFAS concentrations with changes in body weight and RMR, we assigned a median value to each tertile of PFAS concentration and treated it as a continuous variable. We also tested the linear trend using the PFAS concentrations as continuous variables (log10-transformed). In an exploratory analysis, factor analysis was used to explore the potential exposure patterns of PFASs.
As far as sugar goes, high-fructose corn syrup is the worst of the lot. The man-made substance is a combination of corn syrup (which itself is 100 percent glucose) and pure fructose, making it a unique nightmare for your waistline. In one study, researchers fed subjects beverages sweetened with either glucose or fructose. Though both groups gained the same amount of weight over a two-month period, the fructose group gained its weight primarily as belly fat because of the way this type of sugar is processed in the liver. To avoid the belly-bloating HFCS trap, make sure you look at nutrition labels carefully and ditch the processed snacks and fruit drinks.