After multivariate adjustment, including baseline RMR and dietary intervention group, baseline plasma PFAS concentrations, especially for PFOS and PFNA, were significantly associated with a greater decline in RMR during the weight-loss period (first 6 months) and a lower increase in RMR during the weight regain period (6–24 months). During the first 6 months, comparing the highest to the lowest tertiles, the least-square means (SEs) of RMR change were −45.4 (15.5) versus −5.0 (16.3) kcal/day for PFOS (Ptrend = 0.005) and −49.8 (15.9) versus −3.3 (16.1) kcal/day for PFNA (Ptrend = 0.002) (Model 3 in Table 4). During the period of 6–24 months, comparing the highest to the lowest tertiles, the least-square means (SEs) of RMR change were 0.9 (26.2) versus 94.6 (27.5) kcal/day for PFOS (Ptrend < 0.001); 12.7 (28.1) versus 69.3 (27.3) kcal/day for PFOA (Ptrend = 0.03); 24.6 (28.5) versus 81.5 (27.5) kcal/day for PFHxS (Ptrend = 0.03); 14.1 (27.7) versus 73.7 (27.6) kcal/day for PFNA (Ptrend = 0.02); and 23.1 (27.6) versus 66.5 (28.2) kcal/day for PFDA (Ptrend = 0.09) (Model 3 in Table 4). The results were similar when PFAS concentrations were treated as continuous variables (Table 4). When adjusting for RMR at 6 months (instead of RMR at baseline), the results maintained statistical significance. When changes in RMR or changes in thyroid hormones during the first 6 months were further adjusted for, the results remained largely unchanged. In the sex-stratified analysis, similar results were observed, although some associations did not reach statistical significance, possibly due to diminished power (S4 Table). No interaction between PFASs and sex on RMR changes was detected. The trajectory of changes in RMR among total participants according to tertiles of PFAS concentrations is shown in Fig 2. In addition, similar results were demonstrated when analyses were stratified by dietary intervention group.
My advice is to not using anything from this article for sustained weight loss. Instead, I’d love to see you google “Precision Nutrition Get Shredded Diet”, which provides a rapid fat loss plan that’s based on actual fat (not water) loss. Another approach would be to google “Precision Nutrition Intermittent Fasting”, which provides another alternative.
Also some research shows that the human body is primed to consume most of its calories during daylight hours. But the lifestyle is problematic for many: Because family meals and dinners with friends often are scheduled for after sunset, “people who try to stop eating after 7pm can’t do it every day for the rest of their lives,” says Dr. Seltzer, who supports an alternative strategy: Eating a hearty meal at your regular dinnertime.

I’ve done this cut 2 times so far works great I dropped 17 pounds one time gaining 14 back in about 18 hours on my test cut before I dropped the weight class and I dropped from 147-127 the the last time and gained back 18lbs in 18 hours I struggled making weight the last time though spent an entire day at the sauna should I be working out while cutting if so how much trying to get this down to a perfect science cause I will be UFC champion so I would really appreciate the help!! Thx!
Why a top-pick? This comprehensive program is personalized for each guest to meet his or her specific needs. Each guest consults with the Wellness Manager before arrival and then connects again with him after the retreat. Guests bring home individualized nutrition and fitness programs as well as tools to guide mindful eating practices and skills to address roadblocks that typically interfere with long-term weight loss and weight maintenance.
Held at our luxury resort in the centre of Ubud, the ARMA Health & Detox-Spa Resort has everything and more for your healing holidays. Explore the area on our walks and trips, take a dip into one of our swimming pools, or relax in our tranquil gardens. Enjoy our spa treatments and bodywork as part of your program, wander through rice paddy terraces, over bridges and around romantic lily ponds.
Good question, Craig. As I posted above, HS wrestlers (also, many other grappling sport athletes) aren’t given the full 24 hours to recover from depletion. Some sports have mat-side weigh-ins. Others are just given a few hours after weigh-in to replenish. For these sports, athletes are best served focusing on year-round nutrition strategies, ones that help them stay at a weight very close to the weight they’d like to compete at.
3) How much of your advice was specifically tailored to Nate based on his body type and body fat percentage? For instance, I’m at 16-17% BF and 175 lb, so would my theoretical five-day dehydration and subsequent rehydration be factored differently, or is the regime pretty well standard? (I am NOT aiming to do this, by the way, but am curious about spreading the five-day concept into a six-week one, with less emphasis on the serious restrictions used for Nate’s Day 4 and 5.)

According to the American Heart Association, losing as little as five to ten pounds in overweight people may help lower blood pressure. Research clearly supports this link. With extra weight, your body has to work harder to pump blood, which can damage blood vessels and harden the arteries. “Being obese also increases the body’s demand for oxygen and increases blood volume,” says Ali Webster, PhD, RD, associate director of nutrition communications for the International Food Information Council Foundation. Try these 42 fast, easy tips to lose weight.
There’s no denying dinner rolls are delicious, but you don’t need to take the “breaking bread” aspect of a meal so literally. Instead, steer clear of the bread basket and munch on a leafy green salad instead. If the carb-heavy starter is still too tempting to avoid, try nibbling on a high-fiber snack before sitting down to eat, such as a handful of nuts. The fiber found in nuts will keep you satiated, meaning you won’t be as easily induced to reach for the bread and butter, and you’ll be swapping out unhealthy fats for healthy ones. It’s a win-win!
Situated in the Santa Catalina Mountains of northern Tucson, AZ is Miraval Resort & Spa (oh hey, gorgeous backdrop), where you can take wellness workshops, listen in on lectures, and sweat your way to a healthier lifestyle without worrying about whether your kids have done their homework. With classes like Master Your Metabolism, Anti-Inflammatory Kitchen, and Zen Boot Camp, each part of your day can be organized to reach maximum potential—and take away nifty new habits to incorporate into your daily lifestyle.

I am having reconstructive surgery on my ankle in two days (5/16/13) and since I will be on my posterior for the few weeks after – at least no exercising – I’m looking for advise on dropping 20-30 lbs over the never 40 days so rehab will go better…stats – 5’9 204 – formerly athletic build now couch build – 47 yrs old – I have been a “Ferrisee” (better than Ferrasite) since listening to 4HWW and then 4HB – but need refocused guidance – from one and all – If this is the wrong string please let me know that as well.


Our award-winning program offers weekly programs from April through to September in 2019. Demand for WFV is higher than ever – while there are lots of fitness trainers who ‘kind of’ do fitness retreats, no other trainer in North America has dedicated their career exclusively for more than 10 years exclusively to body transformation retreats, like our company owner, Cat Smiley.
In this diet-induced weight-loss trial, higher baseline plasma PFAS concentrations were associated with a greater weight regain, especially in women, possibly explained by a slower regression of RMR levels. These data illustrate a potential novel pathway through which PFASs interfere with human body weight regulation and metabolism. The possible impact of environmental chemicals on the obesity epidemic therefore deserves attention.
If you work at a job that requires you to be chained to your desk all day, try switching things up and giving a trendy standing desk a shot. Simply standing while you toil away as opposed to sitting has been shown to contribute to weight loss. Bloomberg reports that researchers at the Mayo Clinic found that standing burns about 54 calories over a six-hour day, and although that might not sound like much, those calories accumulate quickly. At that rate, you can burn over 1,000 calories a month just by staying on your feet.

3. Be realistic about which habits need to go. "When I was heavy, I'd eat French fries every single day, plus carbs at almost every meal—like a sandwich for lunch or bread with pasta for dinner. A diet so heavy in fried food and carbs just isn't conducive to weight loss. To lose the weight, I went from three large meals a day to six small meals, mostly made of fresh vegetable salads with lean meats and nuts. And no more bread!"


Cutting weight under the watchful eye of an experienced coach is pretty normal for teenage grapplers/fighters. But take heed: trying to do this on your own without a coach can be extremely dangerous. Also, here’s something important to note: cutting weight gets easier each time you do it. So your first few cuts, you’re lucky to get 8-12 pounds. After years of cutting, that number goes way up. What we’ve posted here is a modest cut. I know some athletes who can do 35 pounds in a week!

If you follow food trends, you might think you have to fall in love with cauliflower and kale to reap all the rewards that veggies offer, but that isn’t the case. Be it broccoli, sweet potatoes, carrots, red peppers, cabbage, spinach, or any other vegetable, the idea is to eat a variety of them and find plenty of ways to enjoy their goodness. So if you just can’t stomach steamed Brussels sprouts, try them roasted, or give sautéed Brussels sprouts a try. If raw zucchini isn’t your thing, see if you like it spiralized into noodles or grilled on a grill pan.


Exposure to light at night doesn’t just interrupt your chances of a great night’s rest, it may also result in weight gain, according to a new study published in the American Journal of Epidemiology. As crazy as it may seem, study subjects who slept in the darkest rooms were 21 percent less likely to be obese than those sleeping in the lightest rooms. The takeaway here is a simple one: Turn off the TV and toss your nightlight.
Friends are helpful not only because they can double as workout buddies or help hold you accountable for appropriate diet and exercise, but also because they’re a surefire way to combat gut-growing feelings of loneliness. A study in the journal Hormones and Behavior found that those who feel lonely experience greater circulating levels of the appetite-stimulating hormone ghrelin after they eat, causing them to feel hungrier sooner. Over time, folks who are perennially lonely simply take in more calories than those with stronger social support networks, so be sure to fit time with pals into your busy schedule.
When your body gets sick, it creates antibodies to the illness so that the next time, the immune system is prepared. Unfortunately, it reacts in a similar way to weight loss. If you’ve lost weight in the past due to exercise or diet changes and attempt those same strategies again to lose weight, your body – again, mainly hormones and metabolism – will adjust to prevent similar damage and you’ll see fewer weight loss results.
There’s some truth to the old adage that breakfast is the “most important meal of the day,” and if you’re looking to blast belly fat, what you eat at the start of each day can make all the difference. According to a study from the University of Missouri-Columbia, a high-fiber, high-protein breakfast may be the most important investment you can make for your waistline. The study showed that eating breakfast triggered women’s brains to release dopamine, a feel-good chemical that helps to control impulses. In other words, eating a balanced breakfast decreases your chances of reaching for that 3 p.m. candy bar and keeps your belly slim.
It may be tempting to blame your metabolism for weight gain. But because metabolism is a natural process, your body has many mechanisms that regulate it to meet your individual needs. Only in rare cases do you get excessive weight gain from a medical problem that slows metabolism, such as Cushing's syndrome or having an underactive thyroid gland (hypothyroidism).
Tart cherries are grown exclusively in Michigan, but if you’re able to get your hands on them there is strong evidence to suggest they can help you achieve your weight loss goals. Need proof? Researchers at the University of Michigan conducted a 12-week study that found that rats fed tart cherries showed a 9 percent belly fat reduction over those fed a standard western diet. Scientists believe this is because tart cherries are especially high in anthocyanins, a type of flavonoid with strong antioxidant activity. These and other flavonoids found in tart cherries have also been shown to have anti-inflammatory effects.

Getting clear about why you want to lose weight will provide you with the fuel to keep going when your resolve starts to weaken (as—let’s be honest—it inevitably will). “I’d encourage those who are thinking of getting healthier to take some time to reflect and journal about what matters most,” Shirley Mast, R.N., B.S.N., and Take Shape For Life Health Coach, tells SELF.


If you just can’t shake those belly-bloating sugar cravings, try tyrosine—a building block of protein. It has been shown to prevent that yearning for the sweet stuff by encouraging the brain to release dopamine and another neurotransmitter, norepinephrine. In other words, eating more tyrosine (which can be found in eggs, spirulina, certain cheeses such as Parmesan, Gruyère, Swiss, and Romano, milk, sesame seeds, beef, and bacon) helps fend off those harmful sugar cravings that make your belly fat.

Featured on the NBC hit reality TV show, “The Biggest Loser,” this resort’s reputation certainly precedes itself. The resort has locations in Malibu, Calif.; Niagara, N.Y. and just recently Chicago, but the original Ivins, Utah location beat out the others (and took first place) in SpaFinder’s readers’ choice top 100 spas in 2012. The resort’s program is similar to what viewers see on TV: intense and group-oriented. During the seven-day program (from $2,695 for a private room), guests start off each day with a scenic guided hike. From there, participants partake in core strength training, cardio, water aerobics, cooking demonstrations and more. After the day is done, guests have the opportunity to relax in the heated swimming pool or at the full-service spa.
It’s every chocoholic’s dream: Research now shows that eating moderate amounts of dark chocolate can reduce overall body fat and shrink your waist. A study among women with normal weight obesity (or skinny fat syndrome) who ate a Mediterranean diet that included two servings of dark chocolate each day showed a significant reduction in waist size than when on a cocoa-free meal plan. Researchers say it has to do with the flavonoids, heart-healthy compounds in chocolate that have important antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Just be sure you’re reaching for a bar with at least 70 percent cacao, and stay away from the “alkalized” stuff, which has a significantly reduced flavonoid content.
Going way beyond your BMI–-a measure of your height and body weight--the scale calculates your percentage body fat, including your visceral fat area (VFA), which provides the most accurate measure of your risk for adverse cardiac events such as heart attack and stroke. BMI is not a true reflection risk of your cardiac risk since increased skeletal muscle mass in relation to height can elevate your BMI, falsely elevating cardiometabolic risk.
Friends are helpful not only because they can double as workout buddies or help hold you accountable for appropriate diet and exercise, but also because they’re a surefire way to combat gut-growing feelings of loneliness. A study in the journal Hormones and Behavior found that those who feel lonely experience greater circulating levels of the appetite-stimulating hormone ghrelin after they eat, causing them to feel hungrier sooner. Over time, folks who are perennially lonely simply take in more calories than those with stronger social support networks, so be sure to fit time with pals into your busy schedule.

Izzy says: "If you are struggling to prepare meals that fit into your calorie allowance, most nutritionists are in agreement that portion controlled, calorie counted meals are an effective and convenient solution. You can find a number of options in your supermarket, or a delivered diet service like Diet Chef can do all the hard work for you – allowing you to still tuck into curries and pasta, whilst adding your own fruit and vegetables on the side."


High-intensity circuit training is similar, only it incorporates resistance training, too. The principle: Do a strength exercise like a squat repeating the motion for a certain amount of time, rest, and then do another strength move. It’s different than traditional resistance training because the rest periods are shorter—usually less than 30 seconds—and the exercises chosen work large muscle groups in order to raise your heart rate. “Our approach combines aerobic and resistance training into a single exercise bout,” write the paper’s authors, Brett Klika, CSCS, and Chris Jordan, CSCS, CPT, in Health and Fitness Journal.
After multivariate adjustment including smoking status, physical activity, baseline BMI, and dietary intervention group, baseline PFAS concentrations were not associated with weight loss in the first 6 months (Table 2). The crude positive associations between certain PFAS levels and weight loss were abolished after multivariate adjustment (Table 2). In contrast, after multivariate adjustment, baseline PFOS and PFNA concentrations were positively associated with greater weight regain in the total study population. Comparing the highest to the lowest tertiles, the least-square means (SEs) of weight regain were 3.3 (0.6) versus 1.8 (0.6) kg for PFOS (Ptrend = 0.009) and 3.4 (0.6) versus 2.0 (0.6) kg for PFNA (Ptrend = 0.01) (Model 2 in Table 2). The results were similar when PFAS concentrations were treated as continuous variables (the beta coefficients for per-unit log10-transformed PFOS and PFNA increment were 0.80 and 1.02, respectively; both Pcontinuous < 0.05) (Table 2). After further adjusting for baseline thyroid hormones (Model 3 in Table 2), the associations remained significant. In sensitivity analyses, when body weight at baseline or 6 months (instead of BMI at baseline) was adjusted for in the models, the results were largely unchanged. When changes in body weight or changes in thyroid hormones or leptin during the first 6 months were also included as covariates, the results did not change materially. In addition, similar results were obtained when using linear mixed-effects models. When PFAS levels were categorized into quartiles, the results were largely similar.
One of the best new examples of a weight loss spa is Skyterra Wellness Retreat about an hour from Asheville, North Carolina. It's a small program that encourages longer stays (one to four weeks) where everyone eats the same delicious, healthy meals at communal tables. They exercise together, attend lectures together, even go into Asheville for a bit of chocolate and coffee at French Broad together!
In addition to the adverse effects of PFASs on estrogen-related pathways, animal studies suggest that PFOA and PFOS may also interfere with energy homeostasis and the endocrine system through other mechanisms [14,15,18,53], including the activation of PPARα and PPARγ [18,19], key regulators in fatty acid oxidation, differentiation and normal function of adipocytes, and glucose metabolism [20,54]. An experiment on human liver cells suggested that PFOA could alter the expression of proteins regulated by hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α [55], which is a key regulator of lipid metabolism and gluconeogenesis [56]. In addition, some animal studies have suggested that PFAS exposure might disrupt thyroid hormone homeostasis, possibly via influencing uridine diphosphoglucuronosyl transferases and type 1 deiodinase [17,57]. Of note, due to the species-specific toxicokinetics (e.g., the elimination half-lives are 3–8 years in humans and 17–30 days in mice and monkeys) and tissue distribution of PFASs [18], caution is needed when extrapolating findings from animal studies to humans. In addition, mechanisms need to be elucidated to interpret the findings that higher baseline PFASs, especially PFOS and PFNA, were associated with changes in RMR, which is a major determinant of weight maintenance, in both men and women [58,59]. Finally, whether the 5 major PFASs might have different biological mechanisms and perhaps exert additive or synergistic effects also warrants further exploration.
The Cabbage Soup Diet works exactly as it sounds – you eat copious amounts of cabbage soup and not a lot else. Basically, the cabbage soup diet works because you are cutting down your calorie intake to near starvation levels. Some say that it is a complete waste of time because the sudden lack of food forces the body into starvation mode which slows down your metabolism and encourages your body to hang on to fat.

“I wish people knew that almond milk is no nutritional match to cow’s milk. In addition to being a great source of calcium and potassium, a cup of cow’s milk has eight grams of protein, which is about the same as a whole egg. Almond milk has only 1.5 grams of protein and can have added sugar when people buy the flavored or sweetened versions. Protein is important for making us feel full and energized longer, and that’s key for being able to have a productive weekday morning,” Libby Mills, MS, RDN, LDN, Spokesperson for the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics tells us in 22 Top Weight Loss Tips, According to Nutritionists.
When you start a new program that your body is not accustomed to, expect to be a little sore, tired, or both. Start at a comfortable pace. Going all out the first few times you exercise could leave you feeling so sore that you have to take the next week off. Spending four weeks on the couch instead of in the gym will put you right back at square one, which just plain sucks.
The Lenox Health Resort Weight Loss Program at Canyon Ranch eschews what it calls “tedious, cookie-cutter weight-loss directives and dreary menus” and instead offers guests a whole-person program with access to top experts in nutrition, exercise physiology, life management, and lifestyle medicine – all working to tailor the best weight loss plan for each guest. Stays range from 1 week and longer, with an all-inclusive no-tipping plan with meals and lodging.
The iconic Red Rocks Amphitheatre in Colorado is known for its off-the-charts music scene, but it's the fitness offerings we're really interested in. Book the Red Rocks Recharge package at Hotel Teatro through summer 2016 and not only will you get a fresh-pressed green juice to fuel your mornings, but you'll also receive complimentary transportation to the theater to participate in the Yoga on the Rocks program. Want to raise your heart rate a little more? Join the Fitness on the Rocks program, where you'll incorporate the stairs into a sweaty, sweaty routine. A private car shuttles your exhausted (but proud) self back to your hotel where you can soak in a glorious recovery bath. 

To help combat the negative impact of artificial light, try working close to a window. Researchers have discovered that those who sit near a window tend to be healthier than those who don’t. Per a study in the Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine, workers near a window got 46 more minutes of sleep a night on average, which is beneficial to weight loss, while workers who weren’t near a window had more sleep disturbances. Additional research has shown that those exposed to natural light during the workweek tended to be more inspired to get outside and exercise.
Also some research shows that the human body is primed to consume most of its calories during daylight hours. But the lifestyle is problematic for many: Because family meals and dinners with friends often are scheduled for after sunset, “people who try to stop eating after 7pm can’t do it every day for the rest of their lives,” says Dr. Seltzer, who supports an alternative strategy: Eating a hearty meal at your regular dinnertime.
Plus, working out early could mean you get more sunlight, which is key to properly setting your body's internal circadian rhythm. In one study, people who basked in bright sunlight within two hours after waking were thinner and better able to manage their weight than those who didn't get any natural light, regardless of what they ate throughout the day. 

Skyterra also talks about the emotional aspects of eating, the importance of stress management, not denying the pleasures of food. You have so much interaction with amazing talents like Amber Chadwick, B.S. in Kinesiology and yoga teacher extraordinaire. Skyterra simply can't be recommended highly enough.You will learn a lot about yourself and have a great experience. All-inclusive rates are $3,500 per week in high season, single occupancy.
Head to San Diego, CA for a comprehensive health assessment at Lifewellness Institute (seriously, it takes 5.5 hours and basically eliminates the need for your annual checkups), then hop in the complimentary transportation that jets you off to Rancho La Puerta in Tecate, Mexico. Once there, you'll choose a holistic program to follow throughout your stay based on those test results, so you can really zero in on what your body needs to reboot (stress management levels, energy, or an inflammation rebalance, for example). With tons of farm-to-table cuisine—you'll head out to the fields before taking part in cooking classes–plenty of workout options, and rejuvenating spa treatments, there's no way you won't leave feeling refreshed.
BodyHoliday’s “Stronger Me” Retreat is a comprehensive weight loss program based on a combination of fitness activities, calorie-controlled cuisine, education, relaxation and fun.  BodyHoliday starts your program before you even arrive, with a consultation with its resident nutritionist/dietician, who devises your meal plan based on your health and weight goals, and once you arrive, you’ll be immersed in a activities from fitness to cooking classes.  The retreat includes a good measure of education to equip you with the knowledge and tools you’ll need to continue your new healthy lifestyle when you return home.
27. Use tech and other tools to your advantage. "I started out just by cutting little things like soda out one by one so I wouldn't burn myself out mentally and give up. I then discovered counting calories on MyFitnessPal, which was [a huge help] for me in my weight loss. A few years in, I lost my way a little bit and found Renaissance Periodization diet templates, which helped me rebuild a healthy relationship with food."
A healthy rate of weight loss is typically anywhere from ½ to 2 pounds per week, she says. But try not to get too caught up in these weekly numbers. Instead, focus on consistency when it comes to eating well and working out. “The best thing to do is to slowly change your habits and build sustainable, healthy eating patterns over time,” says Rumsey.
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People tend to find one workout routine and stick to it but it’s important to switch things up every now and then, especially in terms of cardio. Instead of simply running or walking, try to vary your speeds as you go. Researchers at Ohio State University found that walking at varying speeds can burn up to 20 percent more calories compared to maintaining a steady pace, so get moving!
A recent JAMA Internal Medicine study of nearly 4,000 couples found that people are more likely to stick to healthy habits when they team up with a partner. Invite your honey to a Saturday morning run and then hit the showers together—knowing you have something steamy to look forward to afterward should serve as some additional motivation. And speaking of getting frisky, be sure to check out these 30 Best Proteins for Your Penis.
Unfortunately, metabolic compensation isn’t your body’s only strategy to prevent weight loss or encourage weight gain. Hunger hormones – leptin and ghrelin – are also at play. Fat cells produce leptin, which tells your brain when you’re full. Fat cells also shrink when you lose weight, producing less leptin and meaning you don’t feel as full. Strike one. Ghrelin, produced by the stomach, tells the brain it’s time to refuel. When you lose weight, ghrelin levels rise, prompting you to want to eat more frequently. Strike two. Research suggests that neither leptin levels nor ghrelin levels return to a normal baseline for at least a year.
It’s insane what some will do to have a slight edge in a fight. The biggest example that comes to mind is Anthony Johnson. The dude would walk around at like ~230 lbs and fight in the 170 lb weight class. He would rag-doll guys because of the huge size advantage. Of course, he always had trouble making weight, but it’s still a huge advantage if you can do it properly.
This was such an interesting article especially to note the strength levels not lost during this process. Do you have a similar article with respect to bodybuilding as I did read that the process is similar but with important differences so as to not have water sit under skin but be ushered into the muscle bellies. Thank you so much for all of your responses.
Meal prepping takes a few hours a week, but it's worth it: By getting your meals ready ahead of time, you won't be so tempted to order your go-to Chinese takeout when you're tired and hungry after work. "When you plan an entire week of dinner in advance, you're way less likely to go off course and indulge in foods that aren't good for you," says Pamela Salzman, a certified holistic health expert and cooking instructor. And since you planned things out, you'll actually get the protein, fruit, and veggies your body needs — and you'll lose weight in the process.

Plasma concentrations of PFOS, PFOA, perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorohexanesulfonic acid (PFHxS), and perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) were measured at baseline only, using a sensitive and reliable method based on online solid phase extraction and liquid chromatography coupled to a triple quadropole mass spectrometer [41], with minor modifications. Due to the long elimination half-lives of the PFASs and incomplete samplings, we did not measure plasma PFAS levels during the trial. For all major PFASs, the concentrations were above the limit of detection (0.05 ng/ml), and the inter- and intra-assay coefficients of variation were <6.3% and <6.1%, respectively.

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