Not much of a coffee drinker? Tea is also a natural diuretic, and types of herbal tea such as dandelion or fennel root can also lend a hand. In fact: When a recent study compared the metabolic effect of green tea (in extract) with that of a placebo, researchers found that the green-tea drinkers burned about 70 additional calories in a 24-hour period. 

This replenishing retreat at Menorca's grandest agroturismo can really help you get to grips with your gut. Under nutritionist Jeannette Hyde's personal guidance, you begin a four-week eating plan that's all about abundance rather than deprivation. The goal? To start to restore your microbiome (gut bacteria), which will in turn rebalance heart, body and mind. Days pivot around eating three plentiful Mediterranean-inspired meals stacked with fruit, vegetables and high-quality protein. The villa, Cugó Gran, has manicured gardens, sea views, an infinity pool and plenty of spaces to hide away in. You could easily spend the whole week stretched out on a day bed, sipping ginger water and indulging in Rosalena oil treatments. By the time you check out you'll be slimmer, sleeping better and feeling far more serene.
Yes, going on a juice cleanse will help you detox and can help you lose a couple pounds quickly. The problem with this method, though, is that it isn’t a long-term solution. You are more likely to gain the weight back afterwards because you deprived yourself of essential nutrition while juicing. Plus, the lack of protein will leave you famished and angry. (And nobody wants to be around a hangry person.)

I started my journey this summer with 19% body fat, at the upper range of what would be considered acceptable for percentage body fat. The measurement is based on the principle of impedance, the transmission of electrical current through various body tissues, with fat creating the most resistance and muscle the least, based on its higher water content.
Dining out can kill your hard-earned weight loss wins—and so can boozing too hard. To stay on track with your better-body goals, order your glass of wine or cocktail near the end of your meal. That way, the sweetness can act as a low-cal dessert. Plus, it won’t lower your inhibitions before your meal, which may prompt you to order something unhealthy off the menu.
I don’t follow UFC much (ie, at all), so bear with me. While I consider “pain tolerance” a trainable skill (which this process obviously requires), is there any concern that this method may take something away from a true combat skill competition? A fighter who has a more effective big-small-big protocol but an inferior skill set could definitely gain a huge advantage as mentioned. Dr. Berardi and multiple posters have mentioned ringside weigh-ins for other similar sports to discourage cuts like this (I’m assuming), does UFC have any issue with the practice? They’ve obviously been in place for years and years without any tragedies (I think?), so is it an “If it’s not broken, don’t fix it” sort of deal? 

In a 2-year diet-induced weight-loss trial (the POUNDS Lost trial), we measured plasma concentrations of PFASs at baseline in 621 overweight and obese men and women and collected information on changes in body weight, resting metabolic rate (RMR), and other metabolic parameters during weight loss and weight regain over the 2 years the participants were on the study diet.
After Tom Ram, a Tier 3+ trainer at Equinox Wall St., took my body measurements, performed some tests of flexibility, and then had me step on the InBody 770, an impedance-based scale, my state of health (and fitness) became clearer: I had excess body fat, which I already knew, but it was visceral body fat--inside the abdominal cavity—the bad kind that wraps around your organs and increases your risk of heart attacks and strokes.
Though many believe chewing gum keeps you from mindlessly eating, the minty treat has its own drawbacks that can lead to a bigger belly. Not only does chewing gum cause you to swallow tummy-bloating air, many gums also contain sugar alcohols and artificial sweeteners like sorbitol and xylitol that can cause bloat. If you have to have something to chomp on, go for an organic variety like Glee gum or Simply gum instead. They’re still low-cal, but they don’t use those sweeteners that’ll make you puff up.
Opened in 1976 on the picturesque low-country island of Hilton Head, Hilton Head Health provides a comprehensive weight-loss and wellness experience based upon mindful changes in lifestyle through health education, wellness counseling, balanced nutrition and sustainable fitness plans.  Programs are customizable and run from as little as a week to one month or longer.
As you endeavor to lose weight, remember to be your own cheerleader. Practice self-care and reward yourself for building healthy habits. Above all, says Melton, “Don’t compare yourself to anyone else—even if that someone else is you (20 years ago, before you had kids and a career, etc.). Focus on looking forward and give yourself pep talks to stay motivated.”
“Many people think that they can eat whatever they want as long as they work out. But the truth is, if you are looking to lose or maintain your weight, what you put in your body is significantly more important than hitting the gym. Exercise is important to keep your body healthy, but just because you work out for an hour or more per day, it doesn’t give you the liberty to eat whatever you want!” Ilyse Schapiro, MS, RDN, Co-Author of Should I Scoop out My Bagel tells us in 22 Top Weight Loss Tips, According to Nutritionists.
Not only is drinking lemon water a healthy, low-calorie alternative to soda or juice, but lemons themselves have also been shown to contribute to weight loss. Just one of the citrus fruits contains an entire day’s worth of vitamin C, a nutrient that has the power to reduce levels of cortisol, a stress hormone that triggers hunger and fat storage. Additionally, lemons also contain polyphenols, which researchers say may ward off fat accumulation and weight gain. Believe it or not, even the peel is beneficial because it is a potent source of pectin—a soluble fiber that’s been proven to help people feel fuller for longer. According to a study published in the Journal of the American College of Nutrition, participants who ate just 5 grams of pectin experienced more satiety.
Are your portion control issues making it hard for you to shrink your man boobs? Stop yourself from going back for seconds by grabbing a box of mints. People often yearn for that second cookie or helping of mac and cheese because the taste of the first still lingers. To cleanse your palate, keep mints or breath strips on hand and pop them when it’s time to quit noshing. Not only will this rid the alluring taste from your tongue, it will also keep your mouth busy and act as a distraction. Drinking water or tea are also helpful tactics. 
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Why a top-pick? This comprehensive program is personalized for each guest to meet his or her specific needs. Each guest consults with the Wellness Manager before arrival and then connects again with him after the retreat. Guests bring home individualized nutrition and fitness programs as well as tools to guide mindful eating practices and skills to address roadblocks that typically interfere with long-term weight loss and weight maintenance.
An increase in fiber intake is also recommended for regulating bowel movements. Other methods of weight loss include use of drugs and supplements that decrease appetite, block fat absorption, or reduce stomach volume. Bariatric surgery may be indicated in cases of severe obesity. Two common bariatric surgical procedures are gastric bypass and gastric banding.[12] Both can be effective at limiting the intake of food energy by reducing the size of the stomach, but as with any surgical procedure both come with their own risks[13] that should be considered in consultation with a physician. Dietary supplements, though widely used, are not considered a healthy option for weight loss.[14] Many are available, but very few are effective in the long term.[15]
Working with a lifestyle medicine professional can also help you manage expectations, set reasonable goals and respond to your body’s changes if weight loss is a goal of yours. You may also want to consider whether a nutritionist is right for you. The team at the Northwestern Medicine Center for Lifestyle Medicine specializes in setting achievable goals ranging from comprehensive weight-loss treatment and management for overweight and obese adults and educational strategies that promote weight loss to risk factor reduction and tools to improve physical activity and encourage healthy eating.
After Tom Ram, a Tier 3+ trainer at Equinox Wall St., took my body measurements, performed some tests of flexibility, and then had me step on the InBody 770, an impedance-based scale, my state of health (and fitness) became clearer: I had excess body fat, which I already knew, but it was visceral body fat--inside the abdominal cavity—the bad kind that wraps around your organs and increases your risk of heart attacks and strokes.
Eliminate sodium in diet tips # 2: Choose fresh, natural foods over fast, commercial or packaged foods. Instead of ordering french fries (265 milligrams of sodium), have a baked potato (8 milligrams). Instead of a pickle (1,730 milligrams!), enjoy a fresh cucumber (6 milligrams). And beware of cured meats: Three ounces of ham packs in 1,009 milligrams of sodium, compared to just 48 milligrams for the same amount of roast pork. Soups are also notoriously high in sodium; some canned varieties contain more than 1,100 milligrams per cup. Read labels carefully and stick with low-sodium brands like Healthy Choice.
“ Your waistline is important to your health with the fat around your waist being metabolically active ,” said Holly S. Andersen, M.D., Attending Cardiologist, Director of Education and Outreach at the Perelman Heart Institute, Clinical Associate Professor of Medicine (Cardiology) Joan and Sanford I. Weill Cornell Department of Medicine, New York Presbyterian Hospital. “This type of fat (visceral fat) makes your blood pressure and lipid (cholesterol) levels less favorable, makes you more prone to insulin resistance and diabetes, and is ‘pro-inflammatory’ with inflammation being the gateway to disease:  brain disease, heart disease and cancer.”
In a new study, Stanford University researchers put more than 600 overweight adults on either a healthy low-fat or low-carb diet. It turns out, participants had similar levels of weight loss success on each plan. Researchers looked for clues (such as insulin levels and gene patterns) to see if there are any factors that might make someone more successful on either diet, but after combing through the data, they were not able to make any connections. Since it may take years before scientists discover individual traits that could lead to more success on one plan compared to another, for now, we can learn a lot — and lose a lot! — by recognizing the dieting advice that all experts agree on.

On the raw food diet you can eat anything that is unprocessed and uncooked, so knock yourself out with your choice of organic fruit and veg, nuts, seeds, beans, seaweed and purified water. The creators of this diet are very strict about one thing, that only 75% of food must be heated over 116°C. Fancy living on a diet of only raw vegetables? No, neither do we!
To our knowledge, the current investigation is among the first studies in adults to evaluate the associations of PFAS exposures with changes in body weight and metabolic parameters induced during a controlled weight-loss trial. All individual PFASs were significantly associated with more weight regain in women, but not in men, which was in agreement with previous studies in which the intergenerational effects of PFASs on body weight were observed only in girls and not in boys [21,25,26]. Although the reasons for these gender-specific findings are still unclear, accumulating evidence from experimental research suggests that PFASs are able to interfere with estrogen metabolism and functionalities [12,50,51]. As potential endocrine disruptors, PFASs might reduce estradiol production and the expression of some key genes related to estrogen synthesis [12], or influence estradiol concentrations through pathways such as hepatic aromatase induction, with an initial inhibition and a later stimulation [50]. Using in vitro and in silico species comparison approaches, Benninghoff et al. reported that PFASs may interact directly with estrogen receptors, suggesting that PFASs could act as weak environmental xenoestrogens [51]. The experimental evidence implies that the detrimental effects of PFASs can be sex-specific, thus supporting the notion that women may be particularly vulnerable to obesogenic effects of PFASs. In addition, it is worth noticing that women generally have a higher percentage of body fat than men [52]. Given that fat-free mass could substantially influence RMR, the difference in body composition between men and women could result in significant differences in energy homeostasis dynamics [52].
Since weight loss can be an exhausting and rigorous pursuit, many travelers choose to begin their journey at a relaxing spa. Typical spa offerings, like fitness classes, massage, chef-driven menus make the weight loss process feel less stressful. Some of these fitness and weight loss resorts are located within luxury hotels, while others have stand-alone campuses.
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Whole foods include fruits, vegetables, beans, nuts, seeds, whole grains, eggs, seafood, chicken and so on. Food philosophies may differ around which of these foods to emphasize, but that’s okay, since the evidence shows that there isn’t a single best way to lose weight. The goal is to select an approach that feels sustainable to you. If you can easily live without pasta, perhaps a low-carb method centered around veggies and quality proteins, like seafood, chicken, and lean beef would be a good fit. Vegans and vegetarians can lose weight by choosing fruits, vegetables, whole grains and plant proteins. Nut lovers may do well shedding pounds with a Mediterranean-style menu. Whatever diet appeals to your appetite and way of life, focusing on whole foods is something that all plans promote.
(CONFRONT YOUR FEARS) A friend reminded me of this recently and as he did I remembered a fear. It was fresh and still made my skin prickle with anticipation even though it started many years ago. It feels like yesterday and I’m sure you have those moments too, the ones that never left you even though you shoved them away for a long time. It starts with the 6th grade physical fitness tests. They were the worst things ever except for the talented few that got the bright blue patches. These tests traumatized me. Mostly, the timed mile. Even though we were children it was expected that we run it and everyone did- except me. There wasn't much kindness or compassion in the process and once I realized that, it was something that I dreaded, avoided and ultimately feared. It’s so easy to take ourselves out of even trying when there’s no encouragement to try. When your gym clothes don’t fit right and you’re afraid of the attention that coming in last place will bring you. Year after year this test happened and year after year I walked it & then cried, faked being sick and then ultimately stopped showing up. I’ve never run a mile without stopping and it’s always been on my list of things I want to do but didn’t know if I would. But I want to now. No matter how long it takes me and for no one else other than myself. And now, after being here I would rather try and fail than not try at all. Now’s the time to tackle the fears, all of them no matter how small or how big. So one day I started by asking my trainer if we could work on learning how to run in between strength training. My voice raised and I stumbled over my words and I felt self-conscious again like that chubby little 6th grader in too tight of gym shorts. I was nervous putting this out into the world. He said absolutely and then the next day we did. Just like that. He took me through some movements to work on my stride and made me feel like this was something that I could do. And step by step it was. Only 45 seconds this time, but 45 seconds closer to my goal and each step we take towards our goals away from our fears count. Not always the end result matters most, but the time it takes to jog there.
Calcium and vitamin C team up well to boost metabolism, and broccoli is just one of several healthy foods that contains both nutrients. What sets broccoli apart from the others, however, is that the green veggie also contains kind of fiber that’s been shown to increase the digestion, absorption and storage of food, also known as the thermic effect of food (TEF). A revved up metabolism combined with an increased TEF is a match made in weight loss heaven, so consider incorporating broccoli into a tasty stir-fry, or serving it as its own side dish.
You’ll see some trendy low-calorie diets, including the M-Plan Diet and the 3-Day Military Diet, advertised online and in fashion magazines or tabloids. Their attention-grabbing strategies often appeal to dieters who are looking for something new and something easy. The plans are generally not backed by legitimate weight loss companies, physicians or registered dietitians and they are usually not effective for long-term weight loss.
The mean (SD) age of the 621 participants was 51.4 (9.1) years, with a mean (SD) baseline BMI of 32.6 (3.8) kg/m2. Participants lost an average of 6.4 kg of body weight during the first 6 months and subsequently regained an average of 2.7 kg during the remaining study period. In comparison with the POUNDS Lost participants not included in the current study due to the lack of plasma samples at baseline, the participants included were slightly older (51.4 versus 49.1 years, P = 0.01), but there were no significant differences in other characteristics, including body weight and RMR (S1 Table).

It's an oldie but a goodie. The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute says that if you want to lose weight, the best way to make sure you stick with it is to make a few goals to work towards at the very beginning that aren't just about weight loss. Whether this is simply wanting to hit your five a day fruit and vegetables count or doing 30 minutes of exercise a day, they say this is the most effective way of beginning and maintaining weight loss.


The American Heart Association recommends that the amount of added sugar consumed in a day shouldn’t exceed 25 grams for women and 37.5 grams for men, but since the sweet stuff is in everything from bread to tomato sauce, most Americans aren’t adhering to those guidelines and they’re fatter for it. In a review of 68 clinical trials and studies, New Zealand researchers reported in the British Medical Journal that increasing sugar intake meant increasing body weight while reducing sugar meant reducing body weight. Additional research has shown that cutting back on the granular stuff is one of the fastest ways to lose weight.
Fighting constantly with your S.O.? It’s time to address your issues head-on. "Research has shown that cortisol, the hormone that's released during stressful activity, is linked to fat storage,” says Gina Guddet, couples counselor and co-author of Love Metabolism. “And poor communication between couples is the most common type of stress that you tend to experience."
Tennessee Fitness Spa recently had the honor of hosting VickyFlipFlop, a travel blogger who writes "for people who want to make the most of their annual leave, weekends, money and friends, by exploring the world, and a festival or two." Creating a video about her stay, we're excited to share that Vicky had a fun – and productive! – stay at our fitness camp for adults.  If you'd like to hear Vicky's thoughts about her time at Tennessee Fitness Spa, click on the video above!
The Lenox Health Resort Weight Loss Program at Canyon Ranch eschews what it calls “tedious, cookie-cutter weight-loss directives and dreary menus” and instead offers guests a whole-person program with access to top experts in nutrition, exercise physiology, life management, and lifestyle medicine – all working to tailor the best weight loss plan for each guest. Stays range from 1 week and longer, with an all-inclusive no-tipping plan with meals and lodging.
Sleep apnea, in which you actually stop breathing during sleep, is linked with being overweight or obese. “Sleep apnea is caused, in part, when extra tissue accumulates around the upper airway, which can change its shape and make the throat more likely to collapse during sleep,” says sleep expert Richard Shane, PhD, creator of the Sleep Easily method. In one study, 88 percent of people who lost 33 or more pounds were effectively cured. According to Harvard Medical School, losing just 10 percent of your body weight can drastically reduce sleep apnea symptoms—and in some cases, weight loss can even cure the condition. Don’t miss these other signs your weight gain means your health is in trouble.
We’ve all been told that salmon, packed with heart-healthy omega-3s and belly-flattening protein, is a great way to get strong, lean and healthy. But not all salmon is created equal. Farmed salmon, which is what’s commonly sold in restaurants, can have the opposite effect on your waistline. Farmed salmon has over 100 more calories and nearly twice as much fat as wild-caught salmon. Plus, it’s much higher in saturated fat and lower in heart-healthy omega-3s. When dining out, you’re better off skipping the salmon altogether unless you are 100 percent sure it’s wild-caught.
A healthy rate of weight loss is typically anywhere from ½ to 2 pounds per week, she says. But try not to get too caught up in these weekly numbers. Instead, focus on consistency when it comes to eating well and working out. “The best thing to do is to slowly change your habits and build sustainable, healthy eating patterns over time,” says Rumsey.
In a new study, Stanford University researchers put more than 600 overweight adults on either a healthy low-fat or low-carb diet. It turns out, participants had similar levels of weight loss success on each plan. Researchers looked for clues (such as insulin levels and gene patterns) to see if there are any factors that might make someone more successful on either diet, but after combing through the data, they were not able to make any connections. Since it may take years before scientists discover individual traits that could lead to more success on one plan compared to another, for now, we can learn a lot — and lose a lot! — by recognizing the dieting advice that all experts agree on.
I was just wondering if an IV would be a good idea after weighing in to help replenish the water lost in the cut. I am an amateur mixed martial artist and am cutting down to 170 lbs for the first time (I usually fight at 185). I walk around at about 195-200 lbs but hold a lot of water weight so I believe the cut is very possible. Thank you for your post!!!!!!!
“Fad diets and meal replacement shakes are not the answer to sustainable weight loss or better health. Sure, you can do something drastic to lose 20 pounds in a month, but chances are these actions aren’t sustainable. If you want to lose the weight and keep it off for good, target a weight loss of one to two pounds per week so you can truly see permanent, long-lasting results!” Kristen Carlucci Haase RD-N dished out in 22 Top Weight Loss Tips, According to Nutritionists.
"Tight glycemic control is necessary to maintain health and to prevent disease," Ellen Blaak, a professor of fat metabolism and physiology at Maastricht University, wrote in a review of studies published in the journal Obesity Reviews. Her study found links between poorly controlled blood-sugar levels and obesity, Type 2 diabetes, and heart disease.
Garlic may leave your breath smelling funky, but don’t let that stop you from incorporating it into your diet, especially since it can help you lose weight and keep you healthy. A 2016 study found that garlic powder reduces body weight and fat mass among people with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Recent studies have also shown that garlic supports blood-sugar metabolism and helps control lipid levels in the blood. What’s more? Eating garlic can help boost your immune system, help ward off heart disease, fight inflammation, increase memory retention, and lower blood pressure.

Whether or not you’re specifically aiming to cut carbs, most of us consume unhealthy amounts of sugar and refined carbohydrates such as white bread, pizza dough, pasta, pastries, white flour, white rice, and sweetened breakfast cereals. Replacing refined carbs with their whole-grain counterparts and eliminating candy and desserts is only part of the solution, though. Sugar is hidden in foods as diverse as canned soups and vegetables, pasta sauce, margarine, and many reduced fat foods. Since your body gets all it needs from sugar naturally occurring in food, all this added sugar amounts to nothing but a lot of empty calories and unhealthy spikes in your blood glucose.

Playing up your favorite body parts can boost your confidence and draw attention away from spots you want to minimize. Sculpting your shoulders, arms, chest, and back, for example, can help balance heavier hips so you look more proportionate. Plus, you'll be firmer all over. Celebrities do it all the time: These seven sets of sexy, toned legs are proof!
To investigate the associations of baseline PFASs with baseline values of and changes in other metabolic parameters (including glucose, lipids, thyroid hormones, and leptin), Spearman correlation coefficients (rs) were calculated with adjustment for the potential confounders mentioned above. Stratified analysis was also conducted according to sex, and a likelihood ratio test was performed to test for potential interactions. In sensitivity analyses, body weight or RMR at 6 months (or changes during the first 6 months), instead of the baseline value, was included in the multivariate models when examining the associations between baseline PFASs and changes in body weight or RMR during the period of 6–24 months. We also stratified the analyses by dietary intervention group. In addition, to account for the correlations between measurements on the same individuals, linear mixed-effects models were also used to examine the associations between baseline PFAS concentrations and weight regain (weight measurements at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months), with an unstructured covariance matrix. To assess confounding patterns, in another sensitivity analysis, the covariates were entered into the model in a stepwise manner. In an exploratory analysis, we also examined the associations of PFAS exposures with the gene expression profile in adipose tissue (S1 Text).
Dr. Shiel received a Bachelor of Science degree with honors from the University of Notre Dame. There he was involved in research in radiation biology and received the Huisking Scholarship. After graduating from St. Louis University School of Medicine, he completed his Internal Medicine residency and Rheumatology fellowship at the University of California, Irvine. He is board-certified in Internal Medicine and Rheumatology.

Spa Index Guide to Day Spas, Resorts, and Destination Spas. SpaIndex.com helps you find the best day spas, medical spas, hotels and resorts, weight loss retreats, weight loss spas, detox retreats, stop-smoking retreats and smoking cessation programs, luxury destination spas, wellness getaways, spa packages, DIY recipes, spa cuisine recipes, and the best spa lifestyle ideas and tips.
When grabbing grub at a fast-food restaurant, the “combo” or “value meals” are typically less expensive and make you feel like you’re getting a better deal, but oftentimes they’re also nutritional nightmares. A study in the Journal of Public Policy & Marketing shows that compared to ordering à la carte, you pick up a hundred or more extra calories by opting for the aforementioned cheap “value meals.” That’s because, when you order items bundled together, you’re likely to buy more food than you need or want, and end up overeating as a result. To keep your weight in check, order your food piecemeal instead.
Not like you needed another reason to fall in love, snuggle up with your sweetie, kiss or get it on. Harvard Medical School researchers found that all of those things can aid weight loss. How? Lovey-dovey feelings cause levels of the hormone oxytocin to increase, which in turn, decreases appetite. For even more weight loss hacks, check out these 20 Weight Loss Tricks You Haven’t Tried.
Starchy veggies (like potatoes) and processed whole grains (like whole-wheat bread) are foods I’d normally recommend eating in moderation, since they provide plenty of nutrients, fiber, and healthy carbs. However, high-carb foods aren’t your best friend when you’re looking to drop water weight. Essentially, when your body stores excess carbs, it stores them with water. So replacing carb-heavy foods with non-starchy veggies that still provide filling fiber without as much water retention is the way to go. For a week before your event, you can swap out the starchy carbs for more non-starchy vegetables to lose some water weight. (These are 10 things experts wish you knew about water weight.)
Running watches are the easiest way to track your progress, remain motivated and keep weight off. Depending how fancy you go, you can track pretty much any metric that works for you, certainly way beyond whether you’ve achieved your 10,000 steps. Whether it’s weight, BMI, resting heart rate, calories burned or activity level, the best running watch will track it all.
Whether or not you’re specifically aiming to cut carbs, most of us consume unhealthy amounts of sugar and refined carbohydrates such as white bread, pizza dough, pasta, pastries, white flour, white rice, and sweetened breakfast cereals. Replacing refined carbs with their whole-grain counterparts and eliminating candy and desserts is only part of the solution, though. Sugar is hidden in foods as diverse as canned soups and vegetables, pasta sauce, margarine, and many reduced fat foods. Since your body gets all it needs from sugar naturally occurring in food, all this added sugar amounts to nothing but a lot of empty calories and unhealthy spikes in your blood glucose.
Plasma concentrations of PFOS, PFOA, perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorohexanesulfonic acid (PFHxS), and perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) were measured at baseline only, using a sensitive and reliable method based on online solid phase extraction and liquid chromatography coupled to a triple quadropole mass spectrometer [41], with minor modifications. Due to the long elimination half-lives of the PFASs and incomplete samplings, we did not measure plasma PFAS levels during the trial. For all major PFASs, the concentrations were above the limit of detection (0.05 ng/ml), and the inter- and intra-assay coefficients of variation were <6.3% and <6.1%, respectively.

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